7. Summary

Waves (of all types) will: reflect (diffuse or specular) at the same angle when they hit a solid surface; bend if their speed changes (refraction); bend if they run into an object or opening that is near the same size as the wavelength (diffraction); change frequency (NOT loudness!) if the source or receiver are moving (Doppler shift). Two waves can add constructively or destructively to give a wave with larger amplitude (more sound) or sound cancellation, standing waves, beats, interference (colors on soap bubbles, moth wings, bird feathers).

End of chapter exercises:

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