8. Summary

Pitch is primarily determined by the fundamental frequency of a note. Perceived loudness is related to the intensity or energy per time per area arriving at the ear. Timbre is the quality of a musical note and is related to the other frequencies present. Laboratory instruments measure the fundamental frequency in Hz and sound intensity in W/m2 of a sound wave as independent properties. As we will see we can also measure the other frequencies present which determines the waveform. Our hearing mechanisms, on the other hand, perceive the subjective qualities of timbre, pitch and loudness of a musical note. The objectively measured quantities are related to the subjective perceptions but the relationship is not precise. For example we perceive loudness differently for different frequencies. Our ears are better at distinguishing differences in frequency (JND Hz) at low frequencies than high. And we distinguish loudness differences better for loud sounds (JND dB). As we will see there are several other interesting features of our hearing system that make the perception of sound different from measurements made in the lab.

End of chapter exercises:

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